PPL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural language extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7). Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database.
PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. You can declare constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. You can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. You can create PL/SQL units—procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers —that are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces.
SQL • 1.The Oracle database environment 2.Reviewing basic architecture concepts, Oracle 10g Architecture,Main features of 9i and 10g Basic SELECT Statement 1.Writing the statement in sqlplus, Running the SELECT statement Ordering the output 1.Single Column, Descending order, Multiple column sort Conditional retrieval of data 1.Working with complex conditions, AND OR NOT LIKE BETWEEN • Pseudo columns and functions 1.Pseudo Columns, Rownum, Sysdate, User & UID, the Dual Table Working with character functions 1.UPPER, LOWER, INITCAP, RPAD(), TRIM(), SUBSTR(), INSTR(), TRANSLATE(), REPLACE(), GREATEST(), LEAST(), • Working with date functions 1.TO_CHAR(), TO_DATE(), MONTHS_BETWEEN(), ADD_MONTHS(), LAST_DAY(), NEXT_DAY() • Using non-character function 1.ROUND(), TRUNC(), SIGN(), Working with multiple tables, 2.Different type of Joins, Writing Outer Joins • Using the SET operators 1.Union, Intersect, Minus • Aggregating data using group functions 1.GROUP BY, HAVING • Creating Subqueries 1.Single Row subqueries, Multiple row Subqueries • Enhancing groups function 1.ROLLUP, CUBE Transaction Control Language 1.Rollback, Commit, Savepoint • Processing hierarchies 1.Creating the Tree structure, LEVEL, CONNECT BY • Data Manipulation Language 1.INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE • Data Definition Language 1.CREATE, TRUNCATE, ALTER, DROP, RENAME, DESCRIBE • Using Declarative Constraints 1.Not Null Constraint, Check Constraint, Unique Constraint, Primary Key Constraint, References Constraint, On Delete Cascade, On Delete Set Null • Other Database Objects 1.Views, Sequences, Synonyms, Indexes 2.USER_TABLES, USER_TAB_COLUMNS, USER_OBJECTS • Database Security 1.Object Privileges, Granting access to objects
PL -SQL• Blocks 1.Structure, Writing Anoyomous Blocks • Variables 1.Oracle Datatypes, TYPE and ROWTYPE declarations, Value assignments • Control structures 1.IF ELSE ENDIF statement, IF ELSIF ELSE ENDIF statement, LOOP END , LOOP statement, WHILE condition, FOR condition Cursors 1.Implicit and Explicit Cursors, Cursor Manipulation statements, OPEN FETCH CLOSE EXIT WHEN • Error Handling 1.Predefined Exceptions, Non-Predefined Excecptions, User Defined Exceptions • Procedures 1.Creating and Calling Procedures • Functions • 1.Creating and Calling Functions • Packages • 1.Package Header, Package Body • Design Tips and Techniques • 1.Format of standard packages in an application, Spec and Body, NOCOPY hint theory • Triggers • 1.Database triggers, CALLing procedures from triggers • Dynamic SQL • 1.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE, DBMS_SQL package • Oracle Supplied packages • 1.DBMS_OUTPUT, UTL_FILE • Collection datatypes • 1.Associative Arrays, Nested tables, VARRAYs